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how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare

Global Terrorism Database, https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/. Terrorism from an existential perspective is when an individual, ‘surges up in the world and then defines himself afterwards … and then he will be what he makes of himself.’[11] Theoretically, the individual making the decision to carry out an act of terrorism is doing so with ‘freedom, decision and responsibility … [and] these matters constitute the core of personal being.’[12] It is these factors that have contributed to the reconfiguring of terrorism from being a strategic and tactical asymmetrical-threat, to an asymmetrical- and existential-threat. The existential nature of a terrorist attack is equally able to be applied to a small group or an ‘army’ such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the decision-making and homogenization components are similar. Soft-targets will remain at the forefront of exogenous actors preferred method of objecting to, and repulsing the West. The cause being exercised through the prism of a certain set of values via recalcitrance and in this case through the usage of violence. Historically, the commentary associated with terrorism consisted only of it representing a threat which employed ‘asymmetrical’ tactics to disrupt populaces. Firstly, when the inferior state is in a position of self-defence; and secondly, when the inferior state is in an aggressive position. Whether it has been brought about by numerous failed models of interventionism, it is necessary for Western governments to label terrorism as an existential-threat rather than an empirical- or rational-threat. Whilst all of the reasons that exogenous groups attack governments—particularly Western ones—is beyond the debate in this article, and bearing in mind there is unlikely to be any unique cause for terrorism,[37] as there is no key event identifying the moment that an actor views himself or herself as a soldier fighting for comrades and cause,[38] an historical underpinning that drives violent reactions by exogenous groups does have a primary focus. 13 April, 2017.  https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/terrorism-existential-threat/. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Thus, ISAF is a force that requires an existential response from an exogenous actor. Asia-Pacific and Cross-Strait Machinations: Challenges for Taiwan in the Nascent Phase of Pax-Sino. French President Hollande acted and sent troops to Mali in January, 2013—after the Malian Army had been surprised by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The West’s intervention in Afghanistan by the United States of America (US) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2001—Operation Enduring Freedom—in order to expel the Taliban[29] is a prime example of an involvement that was and remains, ill-conceived, badly-executed and ineffectual as the Taliban continues to be a robust force. 2. 27 July, 2017  http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/07/soliders-killed-taliban-storms-kandahar-base-170726080235545.html, [30] Andrew Rohrer. 8 Jan, 2015.  http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-01-08/paris-newspaper-attack-mapped/6006110. Yet, the challenge to build a consistently effective and ethical counterterrorism is one that we must meet, and continue to meet, as new and extreme iterations of terrorism emerge. For a comprehensive assessment of the Israel-Palestine conflict see, Tanya Reinhart, How to end the War of 1948.; ‘Nigeria: Corruption Fuelling Police Abuses.’  See: Human Rights Watch. Just war principles reveal that terrorism is an aggressively and systematically unjust form of warfare. [2] James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. Liberal-democracy, good governance; fair and equal elections, rule-of-law; the illegality of exogenous actors challenging the authority of the State; and transparent government is to name only several components that have been re-asserted as appropriate governance. The US in Iraq and US and ISAF in Afghanistan are possibly the most significant kinetic interventions with regard to enforcing and reinforcing a Euro-centric/Eurocentrism[35] model of good government and governance. What is of interest here, however, is the decision-making according to the existential paradigm and the concomitant psycho- and socio-homogenization of the populace. The analytical approach that will be adopted will isolate and consider specifically a number of classic and contemporary concerns, ranging from Edited by Mustafa Emirbayer. Notwithstanding the abovementioned, the adding of the word ‘existential’ to the word ‘threat’ offers an all-encompassing concept to the practice of terrorism. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.[42]. To craft an effective but unethical counterterrorism is to be little or no better than our opponents. But what is “terrorism”? Asymmetric warfare encourages the use of non-traditional military tactics, used generally by the weaker force to balance out the power inequity. [15] David Cooper. Praise be to Allah…. http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/what-makes-lone-wolfe-terrorists-245316, [25] The Baader-Meinhof Group was formed in 1968 and had its origins in the German protest university movement of the 1970s. Existentialism was a reaction to rationalism and empiricism which has at its core the Enlightenment (1685 – 1815),[13]  which is ‘positivistic’[14] and holds the conviction ‘that the true repositories of knowledge are the sciences.’[15] Empiricism retains the predisposition and doctrinal components of ‘all knowledge comes from the sense experiences’[16] and that ‘the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience.’[17]. [7] See:  ‘Existentialism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. But, as Coates also says, a tight definition can also be too broad in that it generalizes without paying attention to the specific context in which an act of terror is committed. A Reconstruction. According to the political rhetoric the labeling of terrorism in this way is an acknowledgement that when a terrorist act is committed, it is free of social- and historical-constraints—the act is devoid of reason and made solely from personal accord. [17] See: ‘empiricism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. An introduction, guide and assessment. [8] See: M. Rajimanickam. The ongoing and consistent animosity toward the West by exogenous and non-state actors in the aforementioned clearly offers examples of the West being deemed an existential threat to their societies. Notwithstanding these factors, attacks of this type have been used as strategic and tactical necessities by terrorists for many decades. Adding the new terminology ascribes and signals, a fundamentally different view of terrorism and extends it beyond simply being non-state actors taking up arms against the State to that of an actor or actors, using violence as a means of personal expression. Recent examples of the West’s inept handling of crises are Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). Future War: How do We Prepare Ethically for Radically New Forms of Warfare on the Horizon? From this standpoint all members of the populace—military and civilian—are bona-fide targets and it can be surmised that the existential decision to attack is one of ‘self’ against an overarching enemy. The process of terrorism morphing from a violent asymmetrical-threat to an asymmetrical- and existential-threat, signals a profound change in its trajectory by Western governments. “The United States has now ‘weaponized’ the term (terrorism) in pursuit of its foreign policy goals. In Arguing about War, Michael Walzer argues that an effective and ethical counterterrorism will be multilateral and multifaceted, combining war, police work, covert action, diplomacy, and ideological work. As the threat and actions of terrorists have become more focused, their outcomes have a greater impact on populaces of nation-states. See:  John Jenkins. See: ‘Definition of Eurocentric.’ Merriam-Webster. That is the Question. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2017, 143. Misunderstanding Terrorism. 23 Author: Ekaterina Stepanova Created Date In a world where American military power is unmatched, any opponent's best option is some form of asymmetric warfare. support open access publishing. Whilst both operations were aimed at regime change[28] it can also be argued that they represent a strategic-foothold for the West in the Middle East which reflects its colonizing history and its inabilities to  exercise comprehensive change beyond strategic necessity. Suggests that chemical weapons pose a radically smaller level of threat than nuclear and biological weapons, and that plans oriented towards chemical threats are not adequate as a Homeland defense or response. Acknowledging that there are slight variations to the thematic definitions of what it is to be an ‘existentialist’ and to involve oneself in ‘existentialism,’ is dependent upon which scholarly practice and  interpretation is applied. New York: Penguin, 2007, 5-6. The West is so spellbound with ‘The War on Terror’ that people see terrorists in every airport, every café and in every mosque. Washington was furious and immediately turned on the Taliban and branded it an ‘outlaw regime.’[32]   Terrorism as an act for Al-Qaeda and the Taliban is seen of as a reaction to what is often referred to as ‘Westoxification’[33]  has hinged on many issues although it comes under the macrocosm of the selective inclusion of politico-, military- and economic-principles of the West; and the (selective) application of these to Middle East, Southeast and Central Asian Muslim societies. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because opposing forces vary greatly in power. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Eurocentric, [36] For a comprehensive understanding of terrorism being a threat to the balance-of-power in Western and non-Western countries see: Peter Jennings. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). http://www.dictionary.com/browse/empiricism, [18] For a comprehensive list of terrorist attacks 1970 – 2016. To be an existentialist by necessity means to be a person that has and applies, an existentialist approach to situations. Have all new posts delivered straight to your inbox. The War for Muslim Minds. 8 Criteria for Deciding When It’s Right to Go to War, 10. In upcoming installments of this series, we will address emerging weapons being developed for use against terrorists, special operations and direct action warfare, interrogation and intelligence gathering, drones and robotic warfare, and computers and cyberwarfare. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. Terrorists and freedom fighters may in certain contexts use similar tactics or have similar goals, thus blurring the lines between the two except for the context in which each fights. First and foremost it is important to observe several attacks which have been noted by commentators’ as being of an existential nature, and it is this labeling that continues to inform the threat level: the Bastille Day attack in Nice (14 July, 2016), which involved an attacker driving a truck through a crowd of pedestrians; the London Bridge attack (3 June, 2017), in which a car was used to kill pedestrians; and more recently the attack on pedestrians in Barcelona (17 August, 2017), in which a van was used. To craft an ethical but ineffective counterterrorism is an injustice to the noncombatants in our societies who do not deserve being blown to pieces while working at the desk in their Manhattan office or flying with their family on a commercial airliner. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 15. Narco-terrorism is here understood as an integral component of Pakistan’s state-sponsorship of cross-border terrorism used so as to fund and conduct asymmetric warfare against its neighbours -foremost India- and achieve certain foreign policy goals,” points out Wolf. Fighting from this existential platform presents numerous and significant problems to the authorities of nation-states—the West in particular. The “Founding Fathers” of the Just War Tradition, 7. [21] Emma Luxton. Groups and individuals that present and are subsequently involved in fighting Western forces in non-Western environments essentially, ‘seek to liberate themselves and their co-nationals from what they perceive to be a colonial situation or a repressive government.’[39]  The existential-connectivity of a group is no doubt enhanced through their successes (and losses), and this it can be argued also informs and compels an ongoing belligerence toward their enemy. In regard to ends, acts of terror are usually waged on behalf of a religion or ideology. Understanding Existentialism. https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war; The Saudi Arabia government ‘promised bin Laden that the foreigners would leave as soon as the [1991 Gulf] war was over. Civil and guerrilla … [36]  What is an existential-threat is dependent on perspectives. As all warfare throughout history has been asymmetric to a greater or lesser extent, this ‘new’ ‘Asymmetric Warfare’ (note the capitals to enforce the semantics) has come to be defined as otherwise militarily inferior forces seeking to strike at more powerful adversaries by targeting and exploiting weaknesses of the … The Twenty-first century has shown the West to offer more of the same with regard to demanding change. To extend on this point the application of terrorism depends on the perpetrator’s attitude, loyalties and focus and therefore it is pertinent to mention the differences between Western values and the values of others. Existentialism is a Humanism.1945. [39] James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. The West, however, offers ongoing and systemic support for these countries. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. 11. The form of attack, the use of vehicles against the populace has become more frequent[18] and this is because terrorists in the tactical- and kinetic-phase of a low-intensity operation require simplicity, opportunism and vulnerability of the target. The (New) ‘Clash of Civilizations’: Migration and Terrorism, 5 Reasons Why the West Got Islamist Terrorism Wrong. Notwithstanding the carnage the number of fatalities from terrorist attacks 2000-2015 decreased compared to previous decades. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? See: https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs. [19] Alistair Horne. United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks of 2001 in New York City. Future War: How do We Prepare Ethically for Radically New Forms of Warfare on the Horizon? Acknowledging that existentialism is a profoundly nuanced subject matter and one that encompasses many more aspects than those mentioned is a germane yet necessary observation to make. [35] The definition of ‘Eurocentric’ is to view societies through the prism of European and Anglo-American definitions of the societies and the World. With regard to individual actions terrorism has morphed beyond large group-think actions such as Baader-Meinhof Gang/Red Army Faction,[25]  to being more persuasive to the individuals, and it is here that the connection to existentialism is more erudite and easily made. See: John McQuarrie. New York: Routledge, 2002, 94. 7 Moral Criteria to Guide Commanders during Battle. See:  The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Encyclopædia Britannica. An introduction, guide and assessment, 16. It makes an enemy out of whole categories of people. Regardless of the way in which the West has approached interventionism and the terrorist threat inspired because of it, the fundamental strategy of interventionism remains ensconced in a flawed US model of action. [21] The number of fatalities, however, does not adequately reflect the overarching perception of the terrorist threat, as the aim of a terrorist or group, is to instill fear in the populace. [32] Eric Margolis. It was waged with glee rather than regret, for the sake of furthering a religious and ideological agenda rather than correcting a specific injustice, and purposely aimed at unsuspecting civilians rather than armed combatants. [24] Authorities therefore, are reduced in their capabilities as (usually) and by necessity, authorities are pre-positioned as a response to actions; and the attacks are opportunistic and this too, favors the initiator. See: ‘Positivism’ Dictionary.com http://www.dictionary.com/browse/positivism?s=t. [42] Thomas Ricks. The tactical success in future wars depends on at least one of two assumptions. It is important, however, to look beyond today’s headlines about Yemen and consider the broader range of threats the US now … To Fight or Not to Fight? [28] Joseph Collins. When practiced outside the laws of war, it is often defined as terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners or their supporters. The usage of the term ‘existential threat,’—especially in political forums and the news media—it is fair to argue has gripped the public imagination and therefore, terrorism has gained a renewed vigour; and the term has further created a robust and enduring fear throughout the West. Many thanks! [4] ee:’Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know.’  BBCNews. There is and remains, however, in the complex narrative of terrorism, an alternate perspective of whether terrorists’ deem the West to be an existential threat. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Such threats include covert attacks by state actors, state use of proxies, independent terrorist and extremist attacks by foreign groups or individuals, and independent … [12] Existentialism. This act of war was not launched by the leader or governing body of a nation-state, but by a millionaire—Osama bin Laden—who appointed himself leader of the Islamic world. 1st Class Jeff Duran), especially in political forums and the news media, http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf, https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs, https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses, https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/12/why-did-we-fail-in-the-afghan-war-because-we-didnt-understand-the-place/, The Sovereign Nation-State as a Contributor to Terrorism. Intended by a terrorist group, when a government is exhausted from the battles, to beyond a decision!: terrorism in General usage means more than any one of the most ire and ongoing violence! 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